The war simply could not have continued at this level of carnage and destruction for this long without the oil revenues of the protagonists and Iraq's Arab neighbours.
A critique of the Iranian intellectual left who had their dogmas – particularly those around anti-imperialist struggle – shattered by the events of the revolution; and interesting information about the development of the Iranian socialist movement.
The Iranian utilization of the war for 'state-forming' purposes resembles the practice of fascist regimes. Another similarity between fascism and the absolutism of Islamic ideology is the expansionist idea of exporting the Islamic revolution.
This is not an anti imperialist war. This is a war of local ambitions: President Saddam Hussein's opportunism and regional reaction to Iran's revolutionary promise were responsible for Iraq's initial aggression in 1980. And Ayatollah Khomeini has a great deal to do with prolonging the agony.
Arab Nationalism, the Palestinian Struggle and an Economic Scenario for a Potential Arab Unity – ‘Adel Samara
The bourgeois Arab nationalism failed to achieve its avowed aims: economic independence and the liberation of occupied Arab territory. Despite its failures, the Arab bourgeoisie still holds power throughout the Arab homeland, and has intentionally amplified the unevenness of economic development between the Arab countries.
A critical review of two books on the Iranian revolution: despite theur shortcomings, both books make important contributions to discussions surrounding an understanding of the Iranian revolution – something that still eludes us all.
Abrahamian's book, which began as a study on the social bases of the communist Tudeh Party, is unique in its detailed and in-depth coverage of a very important period of modern Iranian politics: the social upheaval and political struggles during 1941-1953.
Roberto Sussman fails seriously to come to grips with Israel Shahak's justified, if painful, challenge directed at Jewish socialists: they have been largely silent about Jewish racism and utterly failing to combat it.
A group of leftist Turkish intellectuals and activists agreed to impart to us in Khamsin some of their knowledge concerning their country. At our request, they later agreed to put together this special issue of Khamsin, wholly devoted to Turkey.
After having strived, since the foundation of the republic in 1923, to become a fully integrated member of the Western world, the Turkish state is once again turning its face to the Middle East. In short, the coup of 12 September 1980 represents a radical rupture with the earlier tendencies of capitalist development in Turkey.
Analysis on the role of Kemalism ‒ a specific form of Turkish nationalism ‒ in overseeing the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic, demonstrating its reactionary nature in annexing Kurdistan and repressing its own working class.
This article examined the extent and nature of women's oppression in Turkey, the attempts of secular-nationalist movements to improve women's conditions and outlining the possible shape of a future feminist movement in the country.
Historical survey of the Turkish left and workers' movement, focusing particularly on the 1960s-70s and the slide into guerrilla warfare, looking both at the strengths and fatal weaknesses of the two interconnected movements.
Since the end of the Second World War Turkey has been firmly in the orbit of the Western alliance though in the past decade a number of events have occurred which have strained the relationship with the West. At present Turkey is surrounded by actual or potential conflicts with Greece, Cyprus, Syria, the Soviet Union, and to the east Iran and Iraq – both with dissatisfied Kurdish minorities.
There is hardly a problem of contemporary society and politics that does not possess a particularly severe form in the Middle East. Nevertheless, in all the various countries, there have always been people who have challenged the status quo with the vision of a future that, however distant and elusive, nonetheless contains some hope. The journal Khamsin was founded in 1975 by a small group of such people.
The state of Israel was built in struggle against the Orient; but once it had been built, about half its (Jewish) people were offspring of that same Orient. Neither the Zionist movement nor the state of Israel has ever been able to resolve that contradiction.